英國Quacquarelli Symonds所發表的大學排名,每年更新。QS最初與泰晤士高等教育聯合發表大學排名榜單,其後分拆為兩個獨立的排名,雙方嘅排名準則均有所不同。























學術評價 (40%)

The highest weighting of any metric is allotted to an institution’s Academic Reputation score. Based on our Academic Survey, it collates the expert opinions of over 100,000 individuals in the higher education space regarding teaching and research quality at the world’s universities. In doing so, it has grown to become the world’s largest survey of academic opinion, and, in terms of size and scope, is an unparalleled means of measuring sentiment in the academic community.

師生比例 (20%)

Teaching quality is typically cited by students as the metric of highest importance to them when comparing institutions using a ranking. It is notoriously difficult to measure, but we have determined that measuring teacher/student ratios is the most effective proxy metric for teaching quality. It assesses the extent to which institutions are able to provide students with meaningful access to lecturers and tutors, and recognizes that a high number of faculty members per student will reduce the teaching burden on each individual academic.

教學職員引用文獻數量 (20%)

Teaching is one key pillar of an institution’s mission. Another is research output. We measure institutional research quality using our Citations per Faculty metric. To calculate it, we take the total number of citations received by all papers produced by an institution across a five-year period by the number of faculty members at that institution.

To account for the fact that different fields have very different publishing cultures – papers concerning the Life Sciences are responsible nearly half of all research citations as of 2015 – we normalize citations. This means that a citation received for a paper in Philosophy is measured differently to one received for a paper on Anatomy and Physiology, ensuring that, in evaluating an institution’s true research impact, both citations are given equal weight.

We use a five-year publication window for papers, so for this edition we looked at papers published from 2014 to 2018. We then take a look at a six-year citation window; reflecting the fact that it takes time for research to be effectively disseminated. In this edition we look for citations from 2014-2019.

All citations data is sourced using Elsevier’s Scopus database, the world’s largest repository of academic journal data. This year, QS assessed 81 million citations from 13.9 million papers once self-citations were excluded.

僱主評價 (10%)

Students will continue to perceive a university education as a means by which they can receive valuable preparation for the employment market. It follows that assessing how successful institutions are at providing that preparation is essential for a ranking whose primary audience is the global student community.

Our Employer Reputation metric is based on almost 50,000 responses to our QS Employer Survey, and asks employers to identify those institutions from which they source the most competent, innovative, effective graduates. The QS Employer Survey is also the world’s largest of its kind.

國際生及教職員國際化比例 (各5%)

A highly international university acquires and confers a number of advantages. It demonstrates an ability to attract faculty and students from across the world, which in turn suggests that it possesses a strong international brand. It implies a highly global outlook: essentially for institutions operating in an internationalised higher education sector. It also provides both students and staff alike with a multinational environment, facilitating exchange of best practices and beliefs. In doing so, it provides students with international sympathies and global awareness: soft skills increasingly valuable to employers. Both of these metrics are worth 5% of the overall total.






指標 比例 簡介
教學評價 30% 教育質素、院校員工能力
學術研究 30% 研究聲望、論文發表數量
學術文獻影響 30% 文獻引用率
國際生比例 7.50% 教職員及學生國際化比例
經濟與創新能力 2.50% 研究能力及知識轉化
教學評價 (30%)
  • Reputation survey: 15%
  • Staff-to-student ratio: 4.5%
  • Doctorate-to-bachelor’s ratio: 2.25%
  • Doctorates-awarded-to-academic-staff ratio: 6%
  • Institutional income: 2.25%

The most recent Academic Reputation Survey (run annually) that underpins this category was carried out between November 2018 and March 2019. It examined the perceived prestige of institutions in teaching. The responses were statistically representative of the global academy’s geographical and subject mix. The 2019 data are combined with the results of the 2018 survey, giving more than 21,000 responses.

As well as giving a sense of how committed an institution is to nurturing the next generation of academics, a high proportion of postgraduate research students also suggests the provision of teaching at the highest level that is thus attractive to graduates and effective at developing them. This indicator is normalised to take account of a university’s unique subject mix, reflecting that the volume of doctoral awards varies by discipline.

Institutional income is scaled against academic staff numbers and normalised for purchasing-power parity (PPP). It indicates an institution’s general status and gives a broad sense of the infrastructure and facilities available to students and staff.

學術研究 (30%)
  • Reputation survey: 18%
  • Research income: 6%
  • Research productivity: 6%

The most prominent indicator in this category looks at a university’s reputation for research excellence among its peers, based on the responses to our annual Academic Reputation Survey.

Research income is scaled against academic staff numbers and adjusted for purchasing-power parity (PPP). This is a controversial indicator because it can be influenced by national policy and economic circumstances. But income is crucial to the development of world-class research, and because much of it is subject to competition and judged by peer review, our experts suggested that it was a valid measure. This indicator is fully normalised to take account of each university’s distinct subject profile, reflecting the fact that research grants in science subjects are often bigger than those awarded for the highest-quality social science, arts and humanities research.

To measure productivity we count the number of publications published in the academic journals indexed by Elsevier’s Scopus database per scholar, scaled for institutional size and normalised for subject. This gives a sense of the university’s ability to get papers published in quality peer-reviewed journals. Last year, we devised a method to give credit for papers that are published in subjects where a university declares no staff.

學術文獻影響 (30%)

Our research influence indicator looks at universities’ role in spreading new knowledge and ideas.

We examine research influence by capturing the average number of times a university’s published work is cited by scholars globally. This year, our bibliometric data supplier Elsevier examined 77.4 million citations to 12.8 million journal articles, article reviews, conference proceedings, books and book chapters published over five years. The data include more than 23,400 academic journals indexed by Elsevier’s Scopus database and all indexed publications between 2014 and 2018. Citations to these publications made in the six years from 2014 to 2019 are also collected.

The citations help to show us how much each university is contributing to the sum of human knowledge: they tell us whose research has stood out, has been picked up and built on by other scholars and, most importantly, has been shared around the global scholarly community to expand the boundaries of our understanding, irrespective of discipline.

The data are normalised to reflect variations in citation volume between different subject areas. This means that institutions with high levels of research activity in subjects with traditionally high citation counts do not gain an unfair advantage.

We have blended equal measures of a country-adjusted and non-country-adjusted raw measure of citations scores.

In 2015-16, we excluded papers with more than 1,000 authors because they were having a disproportionate impact on the citation scores of a small number of universities. In 2016-17, we designed a method for reincorporating these papers. Working with Elsevier, we developed a fractional counting approach that ensures that all universities where academics are authors of these papers will receive at least 5 per cent of the value of the paper, and where those that provide the most contributors to the paper receive a proportionately larger contribution.

國際化比例 (7.5%)
  • Proportion of international students: 2.5%
  • Proportion of international staff: 2.5%
  • International collaboration: 2.5%

The ability of a university to attract undergraduates, postgraduates and faculty from all over the planet is key to its success on the world stage.

In the third international indicator, we calculate the proportion of a university’s total research journal publications that have at least one international co-author and reward higher volumes. This indicator is normalised to account for a university’s subject mix and uses the same five-year window as the “Citations: research influence” category.

創經濟與創新能力 (2.5%)

A university’s ability to help industry with innovations, inventions and consultancy has become a core mission of the contemporary global academy. This category seeks to capture such knowledge-transfer activity by looking at how much research income an institution earns from industry (adjusted for PPP), scaled against the number of academic staff it employs.

The category suggests the extent to which businesses are willing to pay for research and a university’s ability to attract funding in the commercial marketplace – useful indicators of institutional quality.



2020 QS Ranking / QS 世界前200排名大學
  1 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology (Mit) United States  
  2 Stanford University United States  
  3 Harvard University United States  
  4 University Of Oxford United Kingdom  
  5 California Institute Of Technology (Caltech) United States  
  6 Eth Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology) Switzerland  
  7 University Of Cambridge United Kingdom  
  8 Ucl (University College London) United Kingdom  
  9 Imperial College London United Kingdom  
  10 University Of Chicago United States  
  11= Nanyang Technological University (Ntu) Singapore  
  11= National University Of Singapore (Nus) Singapore  
  13 Princeton University United States  
  14 Cornell University United States  
  15 University Of Pennsylvania United States  
  16 Tsinghua University China  
  17 Yale University United States  
  18= Columbia University United States  
  18= Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale De Lausanne (Epfl) Switzerland  
  20 University Of Edinburgh United Kingdom  
  21 University Of Michigan United States  
  22= Peking University China  
  22= The University Of Tokyo Japan  
  24 Johns Hopkins University United States  
  25= Duke University United States  
  25= University Of Hong Kong (Hku) Hong Kong  
  27 The University Of Manchester United Kingdom  
  28 University Of California, Berkeley (Ucb) United States  
  29= Australian National University (Anu) Australia  
  29= University Of Toronto Canada  
  31 Northwestern University United States  
  32 The Hong Kong University Of Science And Technology (HKUST) Hong Kong  
  33= King’S College London (Kcl) United Kingdom  
  33= Kyoto University Japan  
  35= Mcgill University Canada  
  35= University Of California, Los Angeles (Ucla) United States  
  37 Seoul National University (Snu) South Korea  
  38 The University Of Melbourne Australia  
  39 New York University (Nyu) United States  
  40 Fudan University China  
  41 Kaist – Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And Technology South Korea  
  42 The University Of Sydney Australia  
  43 The University Of New South Wales (Unsw) Australia  
  44 London School Of Economics And Political Science (LSE) United Kingdom  
  45 University Of California, San Diego (Ucsd) United States  
  46 The Chinese University Of Hong Kong (Cuhk) Hong Kong  
  47 The University Of Queensland (Uq) Australia  
  48 Carnegie Mellon University United States  
  49 University Of Bristol United Kingdom  
  50 Delft University Of Technology Netherlands  
  51 University Of British Columbia Canada  
  52 City University Of Hong Kong Hong Kong  
  53 Université Psl (Paris Sciences & Lettres) France  
  54 Zhejiang University China  
  55 Technische Universität München Germany  
  56 University Of Wisconsin-Madison United States  
  57 Brown University United States  
  58= Monash University Australia  
  58= Tokyo Institute Of Technology Japan  
  60= Ecole Polytechnique France  
  60= Shanghai Jiao Tong University China  
  62 The University Of Warwick United Kingdom  
  63 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Germany  
  64 University Of Amsterdam Netherlands  
  65 University Of Texas At Austin United States  
  66 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Germany  
  67 University Of Glasgow United Kingdom  
  68 University Of Washington United States  
  69 National Taiwan University (Ntu) Taiwan  
  70 Universiti Malaya (Um) Malaysia  
  71 Osaka University Japan  
  72= Georgia Institute Of Technology (Georgia Tech) United States  
  74 Universidad De Buenos Aires Argentina  
  75 University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign United States  
  76 University Of Zurich Switzerland  
  77 Sorbonne University France  
  78= Durham University United Kingdom  
  78= The University Of Sheffield United Kingdom  
  80 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium  
  81 University Of Birmingham United Kingdom  
  81 University Of Copenhagen Denmark  
  82 Tohoku University Japan  
  83 Korea University South Korea  
  83= The University Of Auckland New Zealand  
  84 Lomonosov Moscow State University Russia  
  85 Rice University United States  
  86 The University Of Western Australia (Uwa) Australia  
  87 Pohang University Of Science And Technology (Postech) South Korea  
  89 University Of Science And Technology Of China China  
  90 University Of North Carolina, Chapel Hill United States  
  91 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong  
  92 Lund University Sweden  
  93= Pennsylvania State University United States  
  93= University Of Leeds United Kingdom  
  95 Sungkyunkwan University South Korea  
  96 The University Of Nottingham United Kingdom  
  97 University Of Southampton United Kingdom  
  98= Boston University United States  
  98= Kth, Royal Institute Of Technology Sweden  
  100 University Of St Andrews United Kingdom  
  101 Ohio State University United States  
  102 Eindhoven University Of Technology Netherlands  
  103 Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México (Unam) Mexico  
  104= University Of California, Davis (Ucd) United States  
  104= Yonsei University South Korea  
  106 The University Of Adelaide Australia  
  107 University Of Helsinki Finland  
  108= Trinity College Dublin (Tcd) Ireland  
  108= Washington University In St. Louis United States  
  110 University Of Geneva Switzerland  
  111 Purdue University United States  
  112 Technical University Of Denmark Denmark  
  113 University Of Alberta Canada  
  114 University Of Groningen Netherlands  
  115 Nagoya University Japan  
  116= Universidade De São Paulo (Usp) Brazil  
  116= Uppsala University Sweden  
  118 Leiden University Netherlands  
  119 University Of Oslo Norway  
  120= Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin Germany  
  120= Nanjing University China  
  120= Utrecht University Netherlands  
  123 University Of Bern Switzerland  
  124 Kit, Karlsruher Institut Für Technologie Germany  
  125= Chalmers University Of Technology Sweden  
  125 Wageningen University Netherlands  
  126 Queen Mary University Of London (Qmul) United Kingdom  
  127 Pontificia Universidad Católica De Chile Chile  
  128 Lancaster University United Kingdom  
  129 University Of Southern California United States  
  130= Freie Universität Berlin Germany  
  130= University Of Ghent Belgium  
  132= Hokkaido University Japan  
  132= Kyushu University Japan  
  134 Aalto University Finland  
  135 University Of California, Santa Barbara (Ucsb) United States  
  136 University Of Maryland, College Park United States  
  137 Université De Montréal Canada  
  138 Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen Germany  
  139 Centralesupélec France  
  140= Mcmaster University Canada  
  140= University Of Pittsburgh United States  
  140= University Of Technology Sydney (Uts) Australia  
  144 Michigan State University United States  
  145 Aarhus University Denmark  
  146 Newcastle University United Kingdom  
  147 Technische Universität Berlin Germany  
  148 University Of York United Kingdom  
  149 Politecnico Di Milano Italy  
  150 Hanyang University South Korea  
  151 University Of Basel Switzerland  
  152 Indian Institute Of Technology Bombay (Iitb) India  
  153 University Of Lausanne Switzerland  
  154= Cardiff University United Kingdom  
  154= Universität Wien Austria  
  156= Emory University United States  
  156= University Of Minnesota United States  
  158 Tecnológico De Monterrey (Itesm) Mexico  
  159 Universiti Putra Malaysia (Upm) Malaysia  
  160= Ecole Normale Supérieure De Lyon France  
  160= Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Ukm) Malaysia  
  162 Hebrew University Of Jerusalem Israel  
  163= University Of Bergen Norway  
  163= University Of Exeter United Kingdom  
  165= Universitat De Barcelona (Ub) Spain  
  165= Universiti Sains Malaysia (Usm) Malaysia  
  167 Case Western Reserve University United States  
  167= Université Catholique De Louvain (Ucl) Belgium  
  167= University Of Florida United States  
  169= Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen Germany  
  169= Universität Freiburg Germany  
  170= University Of Rochester United States  
  172 University Of Bath United Kingdom  
  173= National Tsing Hua University Taiwan  
  173= Queen’S University Of Belfast United Kingdom  
  173= University Of Waterloo Canada  
  176 University Of Otago New Zealand  
  177= Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna Pisa Italy  
  177= Università Di Bologna (Unibo) Italy  
  179= Technische Universität Dresden Germany  
  181 University Of Liverpool United Kingdom  
  182 Indian Institute Of Technology Delhi (Iitd) India  
  183 Erasmus University Rotterdam Netherlands  
  184 Indian Institute Of Science (Iisc) Bangalore India  
  185 University College Dublin (Ucd) Ireland  
  186= King Abdul Aziz University (Kau) Saudi Arabia  
  186= University Of Twente Netherlands  
  188 Universitat Autónoma De Barcelona Spain  
  189= Texas A&M University United States  
  189= Universidad De Chile Chile  
  191 Stockholm University Sweden  
  192= Technische Universität Wien Austria  
  192= Universidad Autónoma De Madrid Spain  
  194 University Of Aberdeen United Kingdom  
  195 Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Vub) Belgium  
  197 Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Germany  
  198= University Of Cape Town South Africa  
  198= University Of Virginia United States  
  200= Keio University Japan  
  200= King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals (Kfupm) Saudi Arabia  
  200= Vanderbilt University United States  


2020 Times Higher Education World University Ranking / 泰晤士高等教育世界大學前200排名
  1 University of Oxford United Kingdom  
  2 California Institute of Technology United States  
  3 University of Cambridge United Kingdom  
  4 Stanford University United States  
  5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology United States  
  6 Princeton University United States  
  7 Harvard University United States  
  8 Yale University United States  
  9 University of Chicago United States  
  10 Imperial College London United Kingdom  
  11 University of Pennsylvania United States  
  12 Johns Hopkins University United States  
  13 University of California, Berkeley United States  
  13 ETH Zurich Switzerland  
  15 UCL United Kingdom  
  16 Columbia University United States  
  17 University of California, Los Angeles United States  
  18 University of Toronto Canada  
  19 Cornell University United States  
  20 Duke University United States  
  21 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor United States  
  22 Northwestern University United States  
  23 Tsinghua University China  
  24 Peking University China  
  25 National University of Singapore Singapore  
  26 University of Washington United States  
  27 Carnegie Mellon University United States  
  27 London School of Economics and Political Science United Kingdom  
  29 New York University United States  
  30 University of Edinburgh United Kingdom  
  31 University of California, San Diego United States  
  32 LMU Munich Germany  
  32 University of Melbourne Australia  
  34 University of British Columbia Canada  
  35 University of Hong Kong Hong Kong  
  36 King’s College London United Kingdom  
  36 The University of Tokyo Japan  
  38 École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Switzerland  
  38 Georgia Institute of Technology United States  
  38 University of Texas at Austin United States  
  41 Karolinska Institute Sweden  
  42 McGill University Canada  
  43 Technical University of Munich Germany  
  44 Heidelberg University Germany  
  45 KU Leuven Belgium  
  45 Paris Sciences et Lettres – PSL Research University Paris France  
  47 The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Hong Kong  
  48 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign United States  
  48 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Singapore  
  50 Australian National University Australia  
  51 University of Wisconsin-Madison United States  
  52 Washington University in St Louis United States  
  53 Brown University United States  
  54 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill United States  
  55 University of California, Davis United States  
  55 University of Manchester United Kingdom  
  57 University of California, Santa Barbara United States  
  57 Chinese University of Hong Kong Hong Kong  
  59 Wageningen University & Research Netherlands  
  60 University of Sydney Australia  
  61 Boston University United States  
  62 University of Amsterdam Netherlands  
  62 University of Southern California United States  
  64 Seoul National University South Korea  
  65 Kyoto University Japan  
  66 The University of Queensland Australia  
  67 Delft University of Technology Netherlands  
  67 Leiden University Netherlands  
  69 Erasmus University Rotterdam Netherlands  
  70 Ohio State University (Main campus) United States  
  71 UNSW Sydney Australia  
  72 McMaster University Canada  
  73 University of Groningen Netherlands  
  74 Humboldt University of Berlin Germany  
  75 Monash University Australia  
  75 Utrecht University Netherlands  
  77 University of Warwick United Kingdom  
  78 Penn State (Main campus) United States  
  79 University of Minnesota United States  
  80 Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin Germany  
  80 Emory University United States  
  80 University of Science and Technology of China China  
  80 Sorbonne University France  
  84 Michigan State University United States  
  85 University of Montreal Canada  
  86 University of Freiburg Germany  
  87 University of Bristol United Kingdom  
  88 Purdue University West Lafayette United States  
  89 Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) South Korea  
  90 University of Zurich Switzerland  
  91 University of Maryland, College Park United States  
  91 University of Tübingen Germany  
  93 École Polytechnique France  
  94 University of Basel Switzerland  
  94 Dartmouth College United States  
  96 University of California, Irvine United States  
  96 University of Helsinki Finland  
  96 Lund University Sweden  
  99 University of Glasgow United Kingdom  
  99 RWTH Aachen University Germany  
  101 University of Copenhagen Denmark  
  102 Georgetown University United States  
  102 Uppsala University Sweden  
  104 University of Arizona United States  
  105 University of Bonn Germany  
  105 Rice University United States  
  107 University of Virginia (Main campus) United States  
  107 Zhejiang University China  
  109 Fudan University China  
  110 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) South Korea  
  110 Queen Mary University of London United Kingdom  
  112 University of Birmingham United Kingdom  
  113 University of Bern Switzerland  
  113 University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh campus United States  
  115 Aarhus University Denmark  
  116 Vanderbilt University United States  
  117 Free University of Berlin Germany  
  117 University of Sheffield United Kingdom  
  119 Case Western Reserve University United States  
  120 University of Adelaide Australia  
  120 National Taiwan University Taiwan  
  122 University of Southampton United Kingdom  
  123 Ghent University Belgium  
  124 University of Colorado Boulder United States  
  125 University of Göttingen Germany  
  126 City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong  
  127 Maastricht University Netherlands  
  128 Radboud University Nijmegen Netherlands  
  128 University of York United Kingdom  
  130 University of Paris France  
  131 University of Oslo Norway  
  131 University of Western Australia Australia  
  133 Durham University United Kingdom  
  134 Indiana University United States  
  134 University of Vienna Austria  
  136 University of Alberta Canada  
  136 University of Cape Town South Africa  
  138 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Netherlands  
  139 Lancaster University United Kingdom  
  139 Tufts University United States  
  141 University of Ottawa Canada  
  141 Ulm University Germany  
  143 Pompeu Fabra University Spain  
  144 University of Geneva Switzerland  
  144 Nanjing University China  
  146 University of Exeter United Kingdom  
  146 Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) South Korea  
  146 University of Sussex United Kingdom  
  149 University of Hamburg Germany  
  149 Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies – Pisa Italy  
  149 Technical University of Berlin Germany  
  152 Université Catholique de Louvain Belgium  
  152 University of Nottingham United Kingdom  
  152 Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Italy  
  155 Arizona State University (Tempe) United States  
  155 University of Leeds United Kingdom  
  157 Autonomous University of Barcelona Spain  
  157 University of Cologne Germany  
  157 University of Mannheim Germany  
  157 University of Notre Dame United States  
  157 Shanghai Jiao Tong University China  
  157 TU Dresden Germany  
  163 University of Würzburg Germany  
  164 Trinity College Dublin Ireland  
  165 University of Liverpool United Kingdom  
  166 Bielefeld University Germany  
  166 University of Leicester United Kingdom  
  168 University of Aberdeen United Kingdom  
  168 University of Bologna Italy  
  168 Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey United States  
  171 Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong  
  172 University of Alabama at Birmingham United States  
  173 Northeastern University United States  
  173 University of Rochester United States  
  175 University of Florida United States  
  175 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Germany  
  175 Stockholm University Sweden  
  178 Texas A&M University United States  
  179 University of Auckland New Zealand  
  179 University of California, Santa Cruz United States  
  179 Korea University South Korea  
  179 Queensland University of Technology Australia  
  183 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Germany  
  184 Aalto University Finland  
  184 Technical University of Denmark Denmark  
  186 Eindhoven University of Technology Netherlands  
  186 University of Gothenburg Sweden  
  188 Télécom Paris France  
  189 Lomonosov Moscow State University Russian Federation  
  189 University of Münster Germany  
  189 Tel Aviv University Israel  
  192 University of East Anglia United Kingdom  
  193 University of Canberra Australia  
  194 University of Duisburg-Essen Germany  
  194 University of Technology Sydney Australia  
  194 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa  
  197 Yonsei University (Seoul campus) South Korea  
  198 University of Antwerp Belgium  
  198 Cardiff University United Kingdom  
  198 George Washington University United States  
  198 University of Lausanne Switzerland  
  198 University of St Andrews United Kingdom  

*以上內容節錄自摘錄自Times Higher Education官方網站